Welder Training, Welder Test and Certification
In all industry sectors, codes and standards cover all aspects of the design and fabrication of welded components, including method requirements, quality control and assurance during welding, and necessary skills for a certain procedure. To control the properties of the welded components that can affect the service requirements, the relevant code is often stipulated by the client or end user as part of a contractual agreement.Therefore, it is essential to comply with these codes.
Welding Procedure Qualification Test and PQR Qualification:
Preliminary Welding Procedure Specification – A document that specifies consumables, preparation, position, and or code and specification essential variables that are applicable to the proposed test weld.
Procedure Qualification Record (PQR) – A documented record of a procedure qualification, including all test reports and material and consumable certification.
Procedure Running Sheet – A form used for the recording of parameters whilst a test weld is being made.
Welding Procedure Specification – a document that specifies the parameters, consumables, preparation, run position, run sequence, preheating, post-heating, and any other details relevant to the weld procedure.
Pre-qualified Weld Procedure – A procedure that does not require testing as it meets all the requirements of a code or standard where pre-qualified procedures are allowed.
Previously Qualified Procedures – A procedure that has been qualified previously on the project and can be used without requalification on another project.
Welder Performance Qualifications (WPQ) – A record of welder operator performance Test. It shall include the essential variables, the type of test and test results, and the ranges qualified for each welder and operator.
Welding control involves the following:
welding procedure development and specifications
welding procedure qualifications
welding procedure qualification records
welding procedure specification
welding operator qualifications
welding consumables control and each is discussed in the following sections.
Welding Procedure Development and Specification Initiation:
When welding procedures are required by a client,
The Welding Engineer develops a preliminary Welding Procedure Specification to suit the client requirements.
Preliminary Welding Procedure Specification
Details of the preliminary welding procedure are prepared and submitted to the client for approval to run the test weld.
Welding Procedure Qualifications (WPQ).
The Welding Engineer or Welding Inspector ensures that each new preliminary welding procedure is qualified in accordance with the Client's requirements and relevant standards and codes.
The Welding Inspector ensures suitably skilled personnel and adequate supplies of welding consumables and test pieces are available for testing.
The Welding Inspector records all necessary welding parameters on a Procedure Running Sheet during the qualification of the WPQ.
Where required by the contract the Client's representative and/or certifying authority is given adequate notice prior to commencement of any qualification.
After visual acceptance, the Welding Inspector identifies the test piece by the use of a marker pen with the following:
a) WPS number
b) identification - name and unique number
The Welding Inspector raises a material requisition for the testing of the welded test piece, ensuring all the necessary data, eg name, number, WPQ number, material type, applicable standards, or codes being worked to, are identified. Upon completion, all testing records are reviewed by the Welding Engineer to ensure compliance.
Following successful testing, the Welding Engineer compiles a Procedure Qualification Record (PQR) which consists of:
Procedure Running Sheet
Material and consumable certification.
The Welding Engineer, signs the PQR sheets in the space provided.
WPS Welding Procedure Specification
The Welding Engineer assigns a unique number to the WPS in consultation with the client.
Welding Technician or Welding Operators/Welder Qualification are qualified in accordance with the requirements of the Client and relevant standards or codes. The test is carried out as per an approved welding procedure. The Welding Inspector verifies the WPS welding test piece, upon completion, meets the requirements of the Client and relevant standards or codes. Welding qualification test and WPS Qualification details are recorded by the Welding Inspector on the Performance Qualifications and these are signed and stamped and approved by the Welding Engineer or delegate.
Control of Welding Consumables
on delivery, packets are inspected for damage
where traceability is required, batch numbers are verified as complying with consumable certification
unopened packets are stored in a dry place
ensure current batches are recorded on the consumable control sheet when traceability is required
once opened, maintain all electrodes other than low hydrogen types, in their original packets in a dry space
ensure that different sizes, brands or batches of electrodes are not mixed
low hydrogen electrodes heating temperature and holding times must be to the manufacturers recommendations.Consumables for GTAW, FCAW, SAW and GMAW are handled and stored in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations.
The following standard forms are referenced in this document:
Preliminary Welding Procedure Specification (General)
Procedure Qualification Record
Procedure Running Sheet
Welding Procedure Specification
DT/ NDT Request